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Amerindians


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AMERINDIANS

This is an entire packet of booklets etc. pertaining to Amerindian (American Indian) culture ranging from bingo games that teach vocabulary having to do with Amerindian culture, to recipes, and languages. Most items are in English and Spanish, making them ideal for language learners including those in Spanish class or English as a Second Language.

AZTEC (NAHUATL)

Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson
ENGLISH SPANISH AZTEC (NAHUATL)

among entre tlan

and y huan, yuan

at a, situada a ko

bat murcielago quimichpatlan

bathroom bano axixcalli

bee abeja xicohtli

big grande (h)uei

black negro tliltik

book libro amoxtli

brown color chocolate chocolatic

child, children nino, ninos konetl, kokonet

come venir huallauh

day dia tonalli

deer venado mazatl

deer (plural) venados mamazat

dog perro chichi

ear oreja, oido nakaztli

eat comer kua

eye ojo iixshli (this also means face)

eat comer tlacua

father padre tahtli

fish pez michin

food comida tlacualli, semilhuitiloni

foot pie isshi(tl)

from de pa

go ir yauh

God Dios teoutl

gold oro teocuitlatl

good bueno kualli

green verde xoxoctic

hand mano matl, maitl

he el (El es mi amigo.) ye, yehua, yehuatl

her su (de ella) i

here aqui nikan

his su (de el) i

house casa kalli

hummingbird colibri huitzilin

I yo ne, ni, ne-hua(ne)

it ello, la cosa ye

its su (de la cosa) i

jaguar jaguar ocelotl

live vivir yoli

man hombre tlakatl

many muchos miek

monkey mono ozomahtli

more mas ok achi

mouse ratoncito quimichin

moon luna meetztli

mother madre naantli

mountain montana tepeetl

much mucho senkah, moka

my mi no

no no maka, ahmoo, amo

not no (No voy.) a, maka

on encima de pan

one uno se

our nuestro to

owl, owl buho, buhos tecolotl, tetecoloh,

rabbit conejo tochtli

rabbits conejos totochtin

red rojo chiltik

river rio aa-toyatl

road camino ohtli

see ver itta

she ella yehua

sky cielo ilhuicatl

sleep dormir kochi

snake, snakes serpiente, serpientes koatl, kocoah

speak hablar tlahtoa

stone, stones piedra, piedras tetl, tetellan

sun sol toonatiuh

that eso inon

there alli ompa, oncan

this esto inin

three tres ye, yee, ee

time tiempo (hora) kahuitl

tooth diente tlantli

town, city pueblo, ciudad altepetl

tree; trees, forest arbol, arboles cuahuitl, cuacuahuitl

two dos ume, ome

understand comprender acicamati, acicamatl

want querer neki

water agua atl

we nosotros tehuantin, tehuan

what que tlehhuaatl, tlein

where donde, donde? kaan, kaampa

white blanco iztak

why? por que? tleka?

with con ...tika

woman mujer siuaatl

yellow amarillo koztik

yes si keemah(ka)

you tu, usted te, ti, te-hua, (and other words)

you (plural) vosotros, ustedes amehuantin, amehuan

your tu (de ti), de usted mo



your (plural) su (de ustedes) amo

LEARN MORE

http://www.native-languages.org/nahuatl.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nahuatl

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/3088/naheng.html

BUFFALO



buffalo herd; credit nasa.org
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson

The Buffalo or Bison is the state animal of Kansas and the state mammal of Wyoming and Oklahoma. It is heaviest land animal in North America. Today it lives in parks and reserves with flat grasslands. Buffalo can run up to thirty miles an hour or forty-eight kilometers an hour.

El bufalo u bisonte es el animal estatal de Kansas y el mamifero estatal de Wyoming and Oklahoma. Es el animal mas pesado en Norteamerica. Hoy vive en parques y reservas con praderas llenas. Bufalos pueden correr tan rapido como treinta millas por hora o cuarenta y ocho kilometros por hora.

Originally there were perhaps 30 to 120 million in North America, most roaming the Great Plains. They ranged from southern Canada south into northern Mexico, and from the Pacific Ocean almost to the Atlantic Ocean. During the 1800s they almost became extinct because white American hunters killed so many of them, partly so that Native Americans such as the Lakota Sioux would not have enough food.

Originalmente habian tal vez 30 hasta 120 millones en Norte America, la mayoria vagando los Llanos Grandes. Vagaron del sur de Canada al norte de Mexico, y del Oceano Pacifico casi al Oceano Atlantico. Durante los 1800s casi se llegaron extinctos a causa de que los cazadores americanos habian matados a tantos de ellos, en parte para que asi los amerindios como los Sioux Lakotas no podian tener bastante para comer.



Adult buffalo are more than six feet high and weigh a ton, which is 2,000 pounds or 900 kilograms. Both bulls and cows have horns. They live twelve to fifteen years. They are herbivores, which means they eat plants. For example they graze on grass and shrubs.

Bufalos adultos son mas de seis pies de alto y pesan una tonelada, la cual es 2.000 libras o 900 kilogramas. Ambos los toros y las vacas tienen cuernos. Viven de doce a quince anos. Son heribivoro lo cual significa que comen plantas. Por ejemplo raspan hierba y arbustos.

Many Native Americans consider the buffalo a sacred animal. It is also an important symbol for many colleges and schools in the U.S. and the Royal Canadian Police. Native Americans made buffalo hide into tepees and clothing. They ate buffalo meat which was fresh, or they ate it as “pemmican” after pounding and drying it. You can see some buffalo for example at the Finney Game Refuge in Garden City, Kansas.

Muchos amerindios consideran que el bufalo es u animal sagrado. Es tambien un simbolo importante para muchas de las universidades y escuelas en los EEUU y la Policia Royal del Canada. Los amerindios convierten el piel del bufalo a tipis y ropas. Comen carne de bufalo que es reciente o lo comieron como pemmican despues de machacar y secarlo. Se puede ver unos bufalos por ejemplo en el Coto de Caza Finney en Garden City (Ciudad de Jardin) en Kansas.

LEARN MORE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_bison

http://www.lasr.net/pages/city.php?City_ID=KS1004006&VA=Y&Attraction_ID=KS1004006a009

http://www.burger.com/buffacts.htm

http://www.travelerstuba.com/travelersclub_009.htm

http://www.tripleuranch.com/htm/buffalo_facts.shtml

BUFFALO WORDFIND

buffalo, bison, state animal, state mammal, heaviest, reserves, flat grasslands, originally, roaming, the Great Plains, ranged, became extinct, partly, suchas, enough food, adult buffalo, weigh a ton, bulls and cows, herbivores, they graze, shrubs, sacred, pemmican, pounding, drying

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THE CHEROKEE



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cherokeenationalflag.png

flag of the largest national band of the Cherokee which is in Oklahoma



Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson
The Cherokee possibly began in the Northeast of the U.S. near the Great Lakes. Later, because of war from the Delaware nation, they moved southeast to North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and other areas. After British settlers came some Cherokee moved for example to Arkansas and Southeast Missouri.
Los Cherokees comenzaron posiblemente en el noreste de los EEUU cercano los Lagos Grande. Mas adelante a causa de guerra de la nacion Delaware mudaron al sureste a Carolina del Norte y Sur, Georgia del norte y otras areas. Despues de que colonos bretanicos vinieron unos de los Cherokee mudieron por ejemplo a Arkansas y Sureste Misuri.
After gold was found on their land, the U.S. army made them move west. Many died in the winter of 1838 on The Trail Of Tears to Oklahoma. Today there are about 400,000 Cherokee.

Many live in North Carolina and Oklahoma.
Despues de que el oro fue encontrado en su tierra, el ejercito de los EEUU hizo que ellos mudaron al oeste. Muchos murieron en el invierno de 1838 en el Rastro de Lagrimas en Oklahoma. Hay hoy cerca de 400.000 cherokees. Muchos viven en Carolina del Norte y Oklahoma.
The Cherokee language is related to other languages in the Iriquois family, for example Mohawk and Huron-Wyandotte. Today there are the Giduwa dialect spoken in the east and the Otali or Overhill dialect spoken in Oklahoma. In Cherokee one, two three is sagwu, ta’li, tso’i. Man, woman and water are asgaya, agehya and ama. Cherokees often write the word “Cherokee” as Tsalagi but it is pronounced Chah-lah-ghee.
La lengua cherokee es relacionado con otras lenguas en la familia iriquois, por ejemplo Mohawk y Huron-Wyandotte. Hoy hay el dialecto Giduwa hablado en el oriente y el dialecto Overhill hablado en Oklahoma. En cherokee uno, dos, tres son sagwu, ta'li, tso'i. Hombre, mujer y agua son asgaya, agehya y ama.
Some Cherokee still use the alphabet or syllabary invented by Sequoyah. Others do not. However it is becoming more popular now on the internet.
Unos de los Cherokee todavia utilizan el alfabeto u silabario inventado por Sequoyah. Otros no lo utlizan. Sin embargo se hace mas popular ahora en el internet.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Sequoyah.jpg
One famous Cherokee was named Sequoyah. Sequoyah is famous because he invented an alphabet. Below is a copy of the alphabet of the Cherokee.
Un Cherokee famoso se llamo Sequoyah. Sequoyah es famoso porque invito un alfabeto. Abajo hay el alfabeto de los Cherokee.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cherokee_Syllabary.png


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Chief_John_Ross.jpg
John Ross (1790-1866) was also very important. Some of his ancestors were from Scotland. He is called The Father Of The Cherokee Nation.
Juan Ross (1790-1866) fue muy importante tambien. Algunos de sus antepasados fueron de Escocia. Le llaman a el el Padre de la Nacion Cherokee.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Rogers-Will-LOC.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:WillRogers.jpeg
Will Rogers was a Cherokee from Oklahoma who was famous for humor. He lived 1879-1935. Some other famous Cherokee Americans have been Ned Christie, Larry McMurtry, Robert J. Conley and Wilma Mankiller.
Will Rogers fue un Cherokee de Oklahoma que fue famoso para el humor. Vivio 1879-1935. Unos otros Americanos Cherokees fueron Ned Christie, Larry McMurtry, Robert J. Conley y Wilma Mankiller.
The Cherokee told many stories about the rabbit which were enjoyed and told by slaves and people were part Cherokee and part Afro-American in North Carolina. Later Joel Chandler Harris published the Cherokee stories as a series of stories called Uncle Remus. For example one Cherokee story called The Rabbit And The Tar Wolf became his story called The Rabbit and the Tar Baby.
Los cherokees contaron muchas historias sobre el conejo que fueron gozados y dichos por los esclavos y las personas que fueron en parte cherokee y en parte afroamericanos en Carolina del Norte. Mas adelante Joel Chandler Harris publico las historias cherokees como una serie de historias llamadas Tio Remus. Por ejemplo una historia cherokee llamada El Conejo Y El Lobo se hizo su historia llamada El Conejo Y El Bebe Del Alquitran.
There are also many legends based on facts about the Trail Of Tears and the Cherokee. For example, north of Cape Girardeau, Missouri, is a beautiful Trail Of Tears park along the Mississippi River. In it is a monument which marks where “Princess Otahki” is burried. In reality she was not a princess, but when alive she may have seemed pretty and intelligent like a princess. Her name in English was Nancy or Nanny Bushyhead Walker Hildebrand. She was the wife of Lewis Hildebrand, and she was the sister of Jesse Bushyhead, a Baptist preacher.
Hay tambien muchas leyendas basadas en hechos sobre El Rastro de Lagrimas y de los cherokees. Por ejemplo, al norte de Cape Girardeau, Missouri, esta el parque hermoso de Rasgon de Lagrimas a lo largo del Rio Mississippi. Adentro esta un monumento que marca donde la "Princesa Otahki" esta enterrada. En realidad ella no fue princesa, pero cuando viva tal vez parecio bonita e inteligente como una princesa. Su nombre en ingles fue Nancy o Nanny Bushyhead Walker Hildebrand. Fue la esposa de Lewis Hildebrand, y fue la hermana de Jesse Bushyhead, un predicador Bautista.
LEARN MORE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee

http://www.skyenet.net/~myersdk/origins.html

http://www.skyenet.net/~myersdk/cher_indiana.html

http://www.skyenet.net/~myersdk/trail_of_tears.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_Rogers

http://ohio-archaeology.blogspot.com/2006_06_01_archive.html

CHINOOK – NATIVE AMERICANS

totem pole http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Totem_Park_pole_1.jpg



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Totem_RMBC_1.jpg
Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson
Native Americans called Chinook had a nation in what is now the U.S. The nation was in what are now Washington and Oregon states. The Chinook people had high totem poles made of wood. The totems had interesting carvings and some were painted. The carvings often showed spirits of ancestors or animals. The Chinook people were very peaceful. They lived in longhouses.
Los amerindios llamados los Chinook tuvieron una nacion en lo que ahora es los EEUU. La nacion estuvo en los que ahora son los estados de Washington y Oregon. La gente chinuk hizo postes altos de totem hechos de madera. Los totemes tuvieron tallas interesantes y algunos fueron pintados. Las tallas mostraron muchos espiritus de los antepasados o de los animales. La gente chinuk fue muy pacífica. Vivieron en casas largas.


salmon; credit usgs.gov, on http://www.usgs.gov/features/lewisandclark/ChildrenWebSites.html
They often ate berries and other plants. They had long canoes made of cedar trees. They fished for salmon which weigh from ten to one-hundred fifty pounds, and they killed rabbits. They sometimes hunted whales in the ocean.
Comieron muchas veces las bayas y otras plantas. Hicieron canoas (piraguas) largas hechas de arboles de cedro. Pescaron a salmones que pesan de diez a cien cincuenta libras, y mataron a conejos. Buscaron a veces las ballenas en el oceano.
Today there are about two thousand Chinook. Many live at Bay Center, Chinook, and Ilwaco, Washington. Many also live with Chehalis people on the Quinault Reservation. There are many books about the Chinook including Boston Jane: an Adventure.
Hay hoy cerca de dos mil de los Chinook. Muchos viven en Bay Center (Centro de Bahia), Chinook, Ilwaco y Washington. Muchos viven con la gente Chehalis en la reservacion de Quinault. Hay muchos libros sobre los Chinook incluyendo Boston Jane: an Adventure.


Charles Cultee; photo by Franz Boaz
One famous Chinook was Chief Comcomly. He lived from 1754 to 1830 and helped both British and Americans including Lewis and Clark. Ranald MacDonald lived 1824 to 1894. He taught English to Japanese who later interpreted for the naval officer Matthew Perry and the Tokugawa Shogun of Japan. Charles Cultee related many of the Chinook traditional stories written by the German Franz Boas in Chinook Texts.
Un Chinook famos fue Jefe Comcomly. Vivio de 1754 a 1830 y ayudo a ambos los bretanicos y americanos incluyendo Lewis y Clark. Ranald MacDonald vivio de 1824 a 1894. Enseno ingles a los japones que mas adelante interpreto para el oficial naval Oliver Perry y el Shogun de Tokugawa en Japon. Charles Cultee relato muchas de las historias tradicionales de los Chinook escritas por el aleman Franz Boaz en Chinook Texts (Textos de los chinook).
In 2001 the U.S. government declared that the Chinook are a nation. However, it later declared the Chinook are not a nation. The Chinook continue to petition for official recognition.
En 2001 el govierno de los EEUU proclamo que los chinook son una nacion. Sin embargo mas adelante proclamo que los chinook no son una nacion. Los chinook continuan a presentar una peticion para obtener reconomiciento oficial.
LEARN MORE

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinookan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_Comcomly

http://www.sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/chinook/index.htm

http://www.dailyastorian.info/main.asp?FromHome=1&TypeID=1&SectionID=23&ArticleID=15042&SubSectionID=783

http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=1013

http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/local/124653_chinook02.html


CHINOOK WORDFIND

Chinook, totem, carvings, ancestors, peaceful, longhouses, berries, canoes, cedar trees, salmon, rabbits, whales, Bay Center, Ilwaco, Quinault, Reservation, Chief Comcomly, MacDonald, Matthew Perry, Charles Cultee, Franz Boas

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COOKBOOK OF NATIVE AMERICAN AND OTHER RECIPES

Copyright 2007

By Mason Emerson

Native American (American Indian) Corn Bread. 

 

Harvest corn, strip off its husks, lay the cobs with their seeds intact in the sun in order to dry.  Scrape off the seeds.  Pound them soft into a meal.  Add water to make a dough. 

 

Coseche el maíz, remueva sus cáscaras, ponga las mazorcas con sus semillas intactas en el sol para secarse. Raspe las semillas. Golpéelas hasta que son suaves para una comida. Agregue el agua para hacer una pasta o masa. Azucare esto o déjelo puro.
Sweeten this or leave it plain.  Next bake it in an oven of clay or adobe in ashes or by putting it into hickory bark by a fire.  Pueblo breads often had bits of chili peppers.  Many Eastern Amerindians cooked without salt until the Europeans came and brought with them sugar and baking soda. 

 

Siguiente metelo en un horno de arcilla o adobe o por ponerlo en corteza de nogal americano a largo de un fuego. Tipos de pan por los amerindios puebos a menudo tuvieron pedacitos de pimientas de chile. Muchos Amerindios del oriente cocinaron sin sal hasta que los europeos vinieron y trajeron con ellos el azúcar y bicarbonato de sosa.

 

Amerindian Juice Drinks.

 

Clean the desired fruit or fruits.  Put them in a container.  Boil with a moderate heat uncovered until they become soft.  Strain and mash the fruit and juice through a sieve.  Drink it as it is or sweeten it with some honey.

 

Limpie la fruta o las frutas que quiere. Póngalas en un envase. Llevelas a ebullición con un calor moderado sin cubierta hasta que llegan a ser suaves. Cole y haga puré la fruta y el jugo por un tamiz. Bébala como es o azucárela con un poco de miel.
BLACKBERRY PUDDING SOUP

Cut up and broil however much meat you want until it’s well done. Cleanse some blackberries then put them together with the meat inside a pot. Pour in enough beef stock to cover the berries and the meat. Add honey to suit your own taste then simmer about an hour. You may also add some butter, cheese, salt, pepper, other spices, crumbled cornbread etc for extra flavor.



Cherokee Fried Cabbage. 

 

Fry a small cabbage cut into bite-sized pieces along with a few tablespoons of meat drippings inside a kettle or other vessel over moderate heat until the cabbage starts to wilt and brown a bit, for example about 9 minutes.  Add some slices of green pepper, stir-fry until the pepper stops being green.  Put the lid on, turn heat to low and let the cabbage wilt about 12 minutes.  Season it to suit your taste buds, toss it and serve it.


Roast Venison. 

 

When successful at deer hunting, pioneers and Amerindians ran a stick through a deer's haunch or neck, held it carefully over a lively fire and it turned it often in order to prevent it from burning and at the same time tossing on some salt, onion or flour dust.  When cooking in a cabin they might heat a gridiron over coals, grease the griddle, put on  a steak broiled well while turning and saving the gravy, then serving the meat with currant jelly. 


Stir-fried Crawdads/Crayfish. 

 

Clean then salt however many crawdads/crayfish you want to eat.  Stir-fry them with bear grease or butter or olive oil, as you may prefer or have, for about 7 minutes.  Drain off the grease, butter or oil.  You may also add some cleaned wild garlic or spices to add even more flavor.

 

INDIAN JUICE DRINKS

 

Clean the desired fruit or fruits.  Put the fruit into a container.  Boil itt with moderate heat uncovered until it is soft.  Strain and mash if through a sieve.  Drink it as it is or sweeten it with honey.


Pemmican
Get deer meat or lean beef. Roll it thinly on cookies sheets. Dry it overnight at about 180 degrees until crispy. Grind or break it again until in tiny bits or powder. Add any dried fruits such as any berries and apple bits, nuts such as walnuts and a little honey. Add a little liquid such beef fat, peanut butter or olive oil. Some people also like to add spices. Mix by hand. Heat a little to melt it together. Put into a plastic bag or sausage casing and store somewhere cold, typically in a deep freeze until ready to eat.
Salads From Wild Greens.
In the spring of the year while they are still tender seek out wild greens such as lambsquarter or pokeweed. However if you decide on getting some pokeweed then beware that its berries which are from green to purple are deadly poisonous and you also need to avoid getting any of the dark purple veined part of the stalks or leafs. In fact people sometimes boiled out and dump the liquid three times to be sure there is no poison.
Rinse greens clean, put into a pot with enough water to cover them prior to boiling. After the boiling process they may be sprinkled with salt, pepper, buttered etc for more flavor. A little vinegar or lemon juice can also be good. A lot of people like to eat such salads along with scrambled eggs from chickens or else use a hoe to retrieve eggs that wild ducks have laid on the bottom of ponds.
SUCCOTASH

 

Grind corn into meal then cook with lima beans or some other kind of beans.  You may add some chopped onion, pepper or hickory nut oil.

 

Sweet Potato Pone. 

 

To one grated sweet potato add 2 large tablespoonfuls of butter, well creamed, with 3 of brown sugar and 1 teaspoonful of grated nutmeg or ground allspice.  Beat the yolks of 4 eggs lightly then add to the preceding.  Beat the whites and put them in.  Beat all well together and bake in a well buttered pan.  This is excellent, hot or cold and it keeps for days.


WILD RICE WITH BACON BITS


Wild rice is common for example in and north of Duluth, Minnesota. It is part of Ojibwe culture.

Put a cup of rice, salt to suit your taste and health, and a couple of cups of water into a saucepan.  Bring this to a boil and then simmer long enough for the rice to draw in the water such that it swells up.

Cook several strips of bacon in a pan, then when they are done break them into small pieces upon the rice. 

Scramble some eggs in the same pan as was used for the bacon, and then season them with salt, pepper and a little butter. Put the pan’s contents in with the wild rice and bacon bits. 

People from the Southern part of the United States may prefer to eat it with lots of butter and sugar, honey or syrup instead of the eggs and bacon bits.

CONSULTED
Native Harvests.  Barrie Kavasch.  1977; 1979. The Wild Food Trailguide.  Alan Hall.  Henry Hold and Company.  NY.  1976.
Some Links: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poke_salad http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wild_rice http://www.nps.gov/archive/efmo/parks/4601b.htm

http://www.recipesource.com/soups/soups/12/rec1243.html http://www.tc.umn.edu/~haskell/HSP/PEMMICAN.html

http://groups.google.com/group/rec.food.recipes/msg/6b54012e3d0f7408?q=pemmican+towner&hl=en&lr=&ie=UTF-8&rnum=1
The search box for beaucoup.com, google.com and searchalot.com were also used as well as my own mother, Ossie Mae (Pratt) Emerson who was taught by her Native American step-mother Rachel (Ivey) Pratt of Poplar Bluff, Missouri.


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